The State of Perak is one of the States of Malaya which still retains its hereditary rulers. It is located north of the State of Selangor and shares land borders with Pulau Pinang, Kedah and Kingdom of Thailand in the north, with Kelantan and Pahang in the east. The Sultanate was founded in 1528 by the first son of Sultan Mahmud Shah of Malacca, Sultan Muzaffar Shah by invitation from local leaders. The ruler of Perak is address to as His Royal Highness Sultan of Perak.
The incumbent Sultan of Perak is HRH Sultan Nazrin Muizzuddin Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Azlan Muhibbuddin Shah. He is the 35th Sultan of Perak. He ascended the throne on 28th May 2014 and officially proclaimed at Istana Iskandariah, Kuala Kangsar on 29th May 2014.
The consort to the Sultan of Perak is styled according to her bloodline. Royal-born consort through a male line is addressed to as HRH Raja Perempuan of Perak. While a commoner-born consort is addressed to as HRH Raja Permaisuri of Perak. They are not automatically styled Queen upon the ascension of their husband to the throne and subject through proclamation. The incumbent is HRH Raja Permaisuri Tuanku Zara binti Salim Davidson on 29th May 2014.
The State of Perak since its foundation in 1528 has been ruled by two royal houses. The first was the descendant of Malaccan Royalty and the second is the House of Siak. The first Sultan of Perak was Sultan Muzaffar Shah I who came to Perak by invitation by local leaders to rule Perak. Nine sultans have ruled Perak descended from the Malaccan Royalty. The State has witness series of invasion from Sultanate Acheh Darussalam. The first attack was during the reign of Sultan Mansur Syah I where Perak became the colony of Acheh. The first son of Sultan Mansur Syah I was married to the Princess of Acheh and later ascended the throne of Acheh as Sultan Alauddin Mansur Syah. Several other descendants of Perak ruled the State until Sultan Salahuddin ascended the throne. Sultanate of Perak was attacked by cholera which the Sultan also one of the victims and died of it in Acheh. He was the last Sultan of Perak who is the descendant of Malaccan Royalty.
After the death of Sultan Salahuddin, Sultan Iskandar Thani of Acheh sent Raja Sulong of Siak to ruled Perak. He later was proclaimed as Sultan Muzaffar Syah II. He is the first Sultan of Perak from the House of Siak. The State of Perak received her second intervention from outsider during the reign of Sultan Muzaffar Syah III, and in this time from the Bugis clan. The Bugis led by Daeng Chelak invade the State, resulted Perak to be separated into two part, North Perak and South Perak. They proclaimed the Sultan's younger brother, Sultan Muhammad Syah of South Perak. The State was reunited when the two brothers reconcile with one another.
The State of Perak received her third foreign intervention during the reign of Sultan Ahmadin Shah when the Sultanate of Selangor invaded Perak. The direct descendant of Sultan Ahmadin Shah still ruled the State till this day. Perak received her fourth foreign intervention during the reign of Sultan Abdul Malik Mansur Syah, where Kedah and Kingdom of Siam invaded Perak, bringing a conflict with Selangor. The fifth intervention from foreign power was during the reign of Sultan Abdullah Muhammad Syah II. A series of succession crisis have led the Sultanate into a civil war. To declare himself as the true Sultan, he signed the Pangkor Treaty 1874 with the British and ruled in Batak Rabit. J.W.W Birch was the Sultanate first British Resident in Perak.
The State was a member of Federated Malay States and later a member of Federation of Malaya which was founded on 1st February 1948. It receives its independence through Federation of Malaya on 31st August 1957. On 16th September 1963, States of Malaya alongside State of Singapore, State of Sarawak and State of Sabah founded the new federation called as Malaysia.
Sultan Nazrin Muizzuddin Syah marry Tuanku Zara Salim Davidson and their marriage was blessed with 2 children, a prince and a princess.
1.) Raja Azlan Muzaffar Syah (14 March 2008)
2.) Raja Nazira Safya (3 August 2011)
The Official Palace to the Sultan of Perak is the Istana Iskandariah located in the Royal City Kuala Kangsar, Perak.
The rule of succession of Perak is the most complicated among all Malay States. To inherit the throne of Perak, one must be :-
1.) A male heir who is the direct descendant of 17th Sultan of Perak. (Known as Waris Negeri)
2.) A muslim by faith.
3.) Appointed by the Dewan Negara of Perak (Royal Council of Perak)
By appointment by the Dewan Negara of Perak, the Waris Negeri will be known as Waris Negeri Kanan who is the Inheritance Prince lining in the line of succession. The State of Perak provided only 6 places in the line of succession and each position will be addressed to as follows :-
1.) Raja Muda of Perak, The Heir Apparent
2.) Raja Di-Hiler of Perak, The 2nd in line to the throne
3.) Raja Kechil Besar of Perak, The 3rd in line to the throne
4.) Raja Kechil Sulong, The 4th in line to the throne
5.) Raja Kechil Tengah, The 5th in line to the throne
6.) Raja Kechil Bongsu, The 6th in line to the throne
The line of succession according to the last meeting of Dewan Negara of Perak.
1.) Raja Jaafar ibni Raja Muda Musa. Raja Muda of Perak
2.) Raja Iskandar Dzulkarnain ibni Sultan Idris Shah II, Raja Di-Hiler
3.) Raja Azlan Muzaffar Shah ibni Sultan Nazrin Muizzuddin Shah, Raja Kechil Besar
4.) (vacant), Raja Kechil Sulong
5.) Raja Ahmad Nazim Azlan Shah bin Raja Ashman Shah, Raja Kechil Tengah
6.) (vacant), Raja Kechil Bongsu
More of the line of succession can be refer here : Line of Succession of Perak.
Some of the picture of the royal family :-
During the proclamation of Sultan Nazrin Muizzuddin Shah.